Monday, January 27, 2020

Media Representation Of Gender And Body Image

Media Representation Of Gender And Body Image It is estimated that we are exposed to over 3,000 advertisements every day. This makes advertisements a very powerful educational force in society. It can be seen that advertisements sell more than just products. They sell values, images and concepts, love and sexuality, and popularity and normalcy. They ultimately tell us who we are and what we should strive to be. Men, women, teens, boys, and girls all identify people by how they look, to body size and shape, to clothes, as well as hairstyles. Therefore, the way we view our body and image can have a large impact on the way we feel about ourselves. For the most people, especially with adolescents, body image is strongly influenced by mass media and advertising. When looking into advertising within media representation and self body image one can see how powerful of an outlet advertising can be in our current society (Advertising: Its everywhere, 2010). Advertisers emphasize body image and the importance of physical attractiveness in order to sell products. They hope to persuade society that something needs to be added or fixed, because what we have is either not enough or good enough to meet the high demands that society puts on satisfaction. Womens magazines are full of articles convincing women that if they can just lose those a little more weight, then they can have the perfect marriage, loving children, great sex, and a rewarding career. The standard of beauty that is imposed on women is difficult to achieve and maintain and therefore, the cosmetic and diet product industries are sure to profit and grow off the high beauty standard. It is no surprise that youth is increasingly promoted, along with thinness, as an essential criterion of beauty in todays society. Aging is looked at in the media as an issue that needs to be dealt with and ultimately stopped all together (Gerber, 2010). Adolescents are the main target for most media outlets because they are particularly vulnerable and inexperienced consumers. They are still learning their values and roles and developing their self-concepts. Most adolescents are sensitive to peer pressure and find it difficult to resist (Kilbourne, 1999, p.129). This constant exposure to negative body image advertisements may influence individuals to become self-conscious about their bodies and to obsess over their physical appearance. The beauty industry is an extremely large industry that profits off the negative self-esteem and body image of many women in todays society. Women who are insecure about their bodies are more likely to buy beauty products, new clothes, and diet aids. It is estimated that the diet industry alone is worth anywhere between 40 to  100 billion dollars a year selling temporary weight loss products (Cummings, 2005). On the other hand, research indicates that exposure to images of thin, young, air-brushed female bodies is linked to depression, loss of self-esteem and the development of unhealthy eating habits in women and girls. The American research group Anorexia Nervosa Related Eating Disorders, Inc. says that one out of every four college-aged women uses unhealthy methods of weight control, such as fasting, skipping meals, excessive exercise, laxative abuse, and self-induced vomiting (National Association of Anorexia Nervosa and Associated Disorders, 2010) . The Canadian Womens Health Network warns that weight control measures are now being taken by girls as young as 5 and 6 years old (The Canadian Womens Health Network, 2005).   Another study conducted by Marika Tiggemann and Levina Clark in 2006 titled Appearance Culture in Nine- to 12-Year-Old Girls: Media and Peer Influences on Body Dissatisfaction, notes that nearly half of all preadolescent girls wish to be thinner and as a result, they have engaged in a diet or are aware of the concept of dieting (Clark, 2006).  Ã‚   In 2003, Teen magazine reported that 35 percent of girls 6 to 12 years old have been on at least one diet, and that fifty to se venty percent of normal weight girls believe they are overweight (Gibbons, 2003).Overall research indicates that ninety percent of women are dissatisfied with their appearance in some way (The Canadian Womens Health Network, 2005). Media activist Jean Kilbourne concludes that, Women are sold to the diet industry by the magazines we read and the television programs we watch, almost all of which make us feel anxious about our weight (Kilbourne, 1999, p. 47). Many of the media images of female beauty are unattainable a majority of women. The media continues to set unrealistic standards for what body size and appearance is considered normal. If you look through any magazine or turn on the television, you would see collarbones, hipbones, cheekbones and rib cages as the overall trend in Hollywood. Celebrities like Mary-Kate Olsen and Nicole Richie, both of whom have been reported to have eating disorders, can be seen in designer clothing with designer handbags and gorgeous men along with them. This is the model of success for many adolescent girls. Most of these girls look up to and admire these celebrities and are therefore taught at a young age that Barbie is how a woman is supposed to look; tall, blonde, big breasts, and extremely thin. Barbie in reality is so thin that her weight and body proportions are not only unattainable, but also unhealthy (Gerber, 2010).. Researchers have generated a computer model with Barbie-doll proportions and have found that her back would be too weak to support the weight of her upper body, and would be too narrow to contain more than half a liver and a few centimeters of bowel. A  real woman built that way would suffer from chronic diarrhea and eventually die from malnutrition. Jill Barad president of Mattel, the manufacturer of Barbie, estimated that ninety nine percent of girls between the ages of 3 to 10 years old own at least one Barbie doll (Greenwald, 1996). Still, the number of real life women and girls who seek a similarly underweight body is epidemic, and they can suffer equally devastating health consequences (Gerber, 2010). Researchers report that womens magazines have more ads and articles promoting weight loss than mens magazines do, and over three-quarters of the covers of womens magazines include at least one message about how to change a womans bodily appearance through either diet, exercise or cosmetic surgery (Gerber, 2010). Television and movies reinforce the importance of a thin body as a measure of a womans worth. Canadian researcher, Gregory Fouts reports that over three-quarters of the female characters in TV situation comedies are underweight, and only one in twenty are above average in size. Heavier actresses tend to receive negative comments from male characters about their bodies and eighty percent of these negative comments are followed by canned audience laughter (Gerber, 2010). Billboards are one of the largest forms of advertisement. Advertisers tend to make these advertisements especially memorable so they dont go unnoticed. Sometimes, they overlook and take it too far. An example of this was a billboard advertising one of NBCs popular television shows, Friends. The billboard glamorized anorexia by picturing the three female stars of the show and beside them the phrase Cute anorexic chicks. The caption was originally meant to be looked at as a joke regarding the accusations towards the three women of having eating disorders and unhealthy exercise habits, which all of them denied. Although the billboard was removed immediately, it illustrated a spectrum of ads promoting harmful body ideals (Smith, 1999). What may really make a difference in this unhealthy trend are organizations that promote fighting back against the standards that the media presents. An organization that has helped do just that is the About-Face Organization. About-Face is a San Francisco based media literacy organization that concentrates on the effect of the mass media on the physical, mental, and emotional health of females. About-Face encourages personal activism against the thin body ideal. Since 1995 About-Face has been providing education and resources on this subject through research that indicates a relation between exposure to the idealized female in the media and the occurrence of eating disorders (About-Face, 1996). Another organization to promote positive body image is Dove. In 2004, Dove launched the very successful Campaign for Real Beauty which features real women, not models, advertising Doves products. The advertisement is composed of six women all with perfect skin, hair, and teeth. The only thing that is looked at as not perfect is their weight. The women within the Dove advertisement are supposed to portray real women instead of extremely thin models in in hopes to offset the unrealistically thin and unhealthy images associated with modeling and advertisements in an effort to widen the stereotype of beauty and boost sales in the process. The slogan real women have curves as well as the campaigns Web site, which features quotes from each of the Campaign for Real Beauty models, does a great job of capturing the overall message of real beauty (Dove, 2010) . The Campaign for Real Beauty has had a huge impact and response throughout the world. The six women in the U.S. ads are featured in national television spots, magazine advertisements, print advertisements and billboards in major urban markets in North America and similar campaign ads are being run throughout the world by Dove as well. The campaign and its influence on body image have been the topic of many newspapers and blogs, receiving mostly praise, but like any other media outlet, some criticism as well. Some question the legitimacy of real beauty messaging through commercial beauty products along with how the ads might affect women who still do not fit in with the portrayal of beauty in the Dove advertisements. Although the women are not touched up, the models in the series are still smaller than the average American woman at size 14. These women can be paid far less, but they can also break the sameness of advertising (Corbett, 2006). All of this attention is what Dove was really striving for in order to get the message across. According to a press release, Dove wants to make women feel more beautiful every day by challenging todays stereotypical view of beauty and inspiring women to take great care of themselves. The use of women of various ages, shapes and sizes is designed to provoke discussion and debate about todays typecast beauty images (Prior, 2004). According to a study conducted by Dove, only two percent of women describe themselves as beautiful. Sixty three percent strongly agree that society expects women to enhance their physical attractiveness. Forty five percent of women feel women who are more beautiful have greater opportunities in life. The study also looked at the degree in which mass media has played in portraying and communicating an unrealistic view of beauty. More than two thirds of women strongly agree that the media and advertising set an unrealistic standard of beauty that most women coul d not ever achieve. Women feel they are surrounded images unrealistic beauty. The majority wish female beauty was portrayed in the media as being made up of more than just physical attractiveness. Seventy five percent went on to say that they wish the media did a better job of portraying women of diverse physical attractiveness, including age, shape, and size (Dove, 2010). Other advertisers have also been departing from the idealistic body type. In the Just Do It campaign, Nike features muscular, disembodied thighs and butts, labeled Thunder Thighs and Big Butt. These advertisements are very important to understanding the media representation and body image of the direction that society will be heading. It is important to take action with the media and society like represented with the Dove campaign, in order to try and change the trend and get women to love being who they are, no matter what their size, and love the uniqueness of their own body (Corbett, 2006). Another media outlet that should not go unnoticed is the digital media. In todays society this plays a very important role. A great example of this is shown through Doves Evolution video. The video starts off with what appears to be a normal woman and is magically transformed into a beautiful supermodel and placed on a billboard. By using a computer, the womans face is geometrically changed and made to look perfectly proportioned. The video shows people that absolutely perfect faces and bodies are not only rare but nonexistent in many cases (Postrel, 2007). In Madrid, one of the many popular fashion capitals, thin models were banned from the runway in 2006. Spain has recently undergone a project with the aim to standardize clothing sizes through using a process in which a laser beam is used to measure real life womens bodies in order to find the most true to life measurement. This project is hoped to help fight the perception that thin equals beautiful. Milan has also jumped on the idea and also banned ultra thin models from fashion week in 2006 in hopes that models will start to become more healthy sizes (Woolls, 2008). Twenty years ago, the average model weighed eight percent less than the average woman. Todays models weigh twenty three percent less. Advertisers are convinced that thin models sell products and that thin is in. When the Australian magazine New Woman recently included a picture of a heavy-set model on its cover, there was an instant backlash of grateful readers praising the change. The advertisers were less then pleased however. They complained and the magazine soon returned to featuring bone-thin models. Advertising Age International concluded that the incident made clear the influence wielded by advertisers who remain convinced that only thin models spur the sales of beauty products (Gerber, 2010). Mainstream media representations also plays a role in reinforcing ideas about what it means to be a real man in our society. Most media sources portray male characters as rewarding for self-control and controlling of others, aggressive and violent, financially independent, and physically desirability. Although distorted body images have been known to affect women and girls, there is a growing awareness regarding the pressure for men and boys to appear more muscular. Many males are becoming more insecure about their physical appearance due to advertising and other media images that raise the standard and idealize well-built men. Advertising images have been accused of setting unrealistic ideals for males, and men and boys are beginning to risk their health to achieve the well-built media standard (Eating disorders: Body image and advertising, 2008). Another issue is the representation of ethnically diverse women in the media. A 2008 study conducted by Juanita Covert and Travis Dixon titled A Changing View: Representation and Effects of the Portrayal of Women of Color in Mainstream Womens Magazines found that although there was an increase in the representation of women of color, overall white women were overrepresented in mainstream womens magazines from 1999 to 2004. An experiment was designed to view the effects of counter stereotypical portrayals on readers. The research showed that exposure to articles featuring counter stereotypical depictions of women of color tended to evaluate the occupational expectations of women of color among white readers but not people of color (Covert, 2008). In article on African American women and beauty ideals, it is stated that Black women are less vulnerable than white women to reacting negatively is they dont match the ideals pervading prime-time television shows and magazines, according to studies (Smith, 2004). African American women pay little attention to thin images of white women and have better body images than white women, though heavier and unhealthier. African American women have disregarded the idea of thin, pretty white woman as unattainable for themselves and as unimportant to others in the black community (Smith, 2004). It is also found in research that black women were less likely to exhibit signs of bulimia (Smith, 2004). When you think of sexy black women in the media, many would instantly think of Beyonce, Rihanna, or Tyra Banks. However, some would argue that though they are ethnically black, they are whiteified. Their hair has been dyed blonde, straightened hair, and even skin lightened. This is sending a negative message to the darker skinned African American women that they are not beautiful (How the media destroys black beauty, 2010). Some other examples of media sources lighting the skin of African American celebrities by using Photoshop and special lighting techniques is recently shown in Gabourey Sidibes Elle 25th Anniversary Cover. Though the magazine denies the accusations, this is not the first time this has been brought to everyones attention (Everett, 2010). Beyonce Knowles has also been represented several skin shades darker in her LOreal Paris magazine advertisements. Even after the company made a statement claiming this was untrue, many find this hard to believe (Guardian News Media , 2008). Other celebrities to undergo the supposed Photoshop skin lightening include OJ Simpson, Mariah Carey, and even President Obama. The message that media gives about thinness, dieting and beauty tells ordinary women that they are always in need of adjustment. The female body is looked at as an object to be perfected (Gerber, 2010). Jean Kilbourne argues that the overwhelming presence of media images of painfully thin women means that real womens bodies have become invisible in the mass media. This statement implies that the constant exposure of images and texts suggests the idea that the thinner a woman is, the better she is. This has a strong influence on women which then contributes to eating disorders and low self esteem issues. Kilbourne concludes that many women internalize these stereotypes and therefore judge themselves by the beauty industrys standards (Kilbourne, 2010). Some may blame society for accepting negative representation of media. However, it is going to take the media to make a change through better marketing choices and a better view of body image and self-esteem. We are bombarded with images of perfect women and men everyday, whether it is on our favorite television shows, movies, magazines and music. The majority of the women are tall, thin and beautiful and the men are muscular, tanned and seductive. People who do not fall within this media induced norm are left without models to look up to. Instead, they give in to the cosmetic and diet product industry and try to alter their bodies to what they have been told is beautiful. Adolescent girls and boys are constantly striving to acquire an unattainable physique. Across the nation, millions of teens struggle with eating disorders and borderline conditions. With the help of Organizations like the About-Face Organization and programs like the Doves Campaign for Real Beauty, body image can s oon be embraced by men and women of all ages, sizes, and skin color. Work Cited Advertising: Its Everywhere. Media Awareness Network. Web. 10 Nov. 2010. . Body Image and the Media. The Canadian Womens Health Network. 2005. Web. 10 Nov. 2010. . Clark, L. and Tiggemann, M. (2006), Appearance Culture in Nine- to 12-Year-Old Girls: Media and Peer Influences on Body Dissatisfaction. Social Development, 15:  628-643. Cummings, By Laura. BBC NEWS The Diet Business: Banking on Failure. BBC News Home. 5 Feb. 2003. Web. 10 Nov. 2010. . Campaign for Real Beauty. Dove. Web. 10 Nov. 2010. . Corbett, Rachel. Doves Larger Models Spur Sales and Attention. Womens ENews. 29 Jan. 2006. Web. 10 Nov. 2010. . Covert, J. J., and T. L. Dixon. A Changing View: Representation and Effects of the Portrayal of Women of Color in Mainstream Womens Magazines. Communication Research 35.2 (2008): 232-56. Eating Disorders: Body Image and Advertising HealthyPlace. 11 Dec. 2008. Web. 10 Nov. 2010. . Everett, Cristina. Elle Magazine Accused of Digitally Lightening Gabourey Sidibes Skin on October Cover. NY Daily News. 17 Sept. 2010. Web. 10 Nov. 2010. . Gerber, Robin. Beauty and Body Image in the Media. Media Awareness Network. Web. 10 Nov. 2010. . Guadian News Media. LOreal Denies whitening Beyonce Knowles Skin in Cosmetics Ad. Buzzle Web Portal. 8 Aug. 2008. Web. 10 Nov. 2010. . Gibbons, Sheila. Teen Magazines Send Girls All the Wrong Messages. Womens ENews. 29 Oct. 2003. Web. 10 Nov. 2010. . Greenwald, John, Valerie Marchant, and Jacqueline Savaiano. BARBIE BOOTS UP TIME. 11 Nov. 1996. Web. 10 Nov. 2010. . How The Media Destroys Black Beauty | Socyberty. Socyberty: Society on the Web. 24 Oct. 2010. Web. 10 Nov. 2010. . Kilbourne, Jean. Beautyand the Beast of Advertising. Center for Media Literacy. Web. 10 Nov. 2010. . Kilbourne, Jean. Cant Buy My Love: How Advertising Changes the Way We Think and Feel. New York: Simon Schuster, 1999. National Association of Anorexia Nervosa and Associated Disorders. National Association of Anorexia Nervosa and Associated Disorders. Web. 10 Nov. 2010. . Postrel, Virginia. The Truth about Beauty. The Atlantic (2007): 1-3. Prior, Molly. Dove Ad Campaign Aims to Redefine Beauty Womens Wear Daily, October 8, 2004. Smith, Dakota. Black Women Ignore Many of Medias Beauty Ideals. Womens ENews. 10 June 2004. Web. 10 Nov. 2010. . Smith, Katie. Effect of the Media on Eating Disorders. Effect of the Media on Eating Disorders. 23 Nov. 1999. Web. 10 Nov. 2010. . Woolls, Daniel. Spain to Make Clothes for Real Women. 7 Feb. 2008. Web. 10 Nov. 2010. .

Sunday, January 19, 2020


Krakatau (Krakatoa) is said to have created the worst volcanic eruptions in history in May 1883. Ancient Krakatoa formed in 419 AD and still exists today in Indonesia. That explosion in 1883 created 130 foot tsnamis which affects were felt by north and south America all along the Sundra Strait even as far as England ,it also destroyed 130 coastal homes, two ports (Indonesia and Australia) , killed about 36,000 people and formed a volcanic ash cloud that reached 17 miles high encasing the earth within 3 days. The eruption created very load explosions and was heard 3,000 miles from Java. Some people even believe the drop in temperature and spectacular sunsets over the next three years were directly caused by the eruption. Krakatoa erupted many times over its lifetime but the most historic and dangerous eruption occured on August 27 1883 when the volcano literally â€Å"blew itself to bits† destroying 75% of itself along with many people and animals living near coastlines of Australia and Indonesia. In 1988 Krakatoa erupted again in February and continued erupting through to March 16 which was when small lava flows were reported flowing from the crater, it then continued through to April with continuous explosions and plumes of fire. November 12 1992 Krakatoa erupted again with such intensity it caused lava bombs to shoot out over the north coast and had lava flowing into the sea. In 1883 the eruption lasted from August 23 to 27,in 1988 explosive eruptions lasted February through to April and in 1992 the eruptions lasted the longest from 7 November 1992 through to August 14 1993. The 1992 eruption caused lava flows up to 1 kilometer to the north adding 100 meters to the coastline. New vents have formed due to the eruptions and these in turn have led to the creation of a new volcanic island which is known as Anuk Krakatoa (â€Å"child of Krakatoa†) the island is active and grows approximately 13cm each week. Krakatoa is still grumbling away today ready to explode, in fact the last eruption was in 2001. This concludes that it is still active and likely to â€Å"blow it's top off† anytime.

Saturday, January 11, 2020

Psychology Experiments/Biological Influences Essay

In this experiment, we aim to provide an understanding about the concepts of adaptation through a series of tests. This involves using our different senses to perceive changes in an environment, and how we’ll be able to adapt to these changes.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   In the first experiment, the sense that we are going to use is the sense of taste. Through this test, we’ll determine how we adapt to changes in what we taste or basically what we eat. By mixing sugar into water, we create a sweet substance which we’re going to use for the taste test. We also need fresh water in order to tell any differences afterwards. What I did was to take a sip of sugar water and let it stay in my mouth for some time, until it tastes less sweet. It took several seconds until it tasted less sweet, and afterwards I took a sip from the cup containing fresh water. The surprising part was that the fresh water tasted doesn’t have any taste in it at all. I know water supposedly has no taste, but with the experiment, it tasted stale.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   In the next test, the sense that will be used is our tactile sense, mainly the skin’s perception of temperature. Through this test, we’ll determine how we adopt to the changes of temperature in our environment. We prepare three bowls with tap water of varying temperature. One is hot (but not painfully so), another is very cold, and the other is a mixture of the hot and cold tap water. What I did was to submerge my left hand in the hot tap water and my right hand on the cold tap water. I let it stay there for three minutes, and afterwards I placed both my hands in the bowl containing the mixture of hot and cold tap water. I took not of what I felt in the experiment.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Upon placing my both my hands in the mixture of water, I noticed that my left (which was previously submerged on the hot one) felt cold until it slowly changes back to the temperature of the water mixture. Same goes for my right hand, which felt warm when I submerged it in the mixture until it slowly changed back to the temperature of the water mixture. The skin’s receptor was not able to perceive any changes in the temperature in the water.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   The final test was again on the tactile sense, wherein we have to rub our index finger into a sand paper and rate its coarseness from 1 to 7, where 1 is very soft, and 7 is very coarse. When I rubbed my index finger to the sandpaper, my initial rating was that it’s 7, since I felt that it was very coarse to touch. When I rubbed my index finger on the sand paper for a second time, it felt a little different. It’s as if it lost its coarseness a bit. I gave it a rating of 5.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Basing on the experiment, adaptation can be defined as the loss of sensitivity of a receptor due to prolonged stimulation of it. Because of this, it would require a stronger stimulus in order to further activate it. Adaptation is defined as a positive characteristic of an organism that has been favoured by natural selection, since they are able to live successfully in an environment. This enables living organisms to cope with environmental stresses and pressures, something which could result from the body structure, the organism’s behaviour, or its physiology (, 2007).   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Adaptation is evident in each of the results of the experiments. On the first experiment on water sugar, there was a sour aftertaste when I sipped fresh water. This could be because sour taste neutralizes the sweet taste so when we sipped sugar water and swished it all over our mouth, we psychologically perceive that there is a sour taste in order to neutralize the sweet taste in our mouths.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   On the second experiment on waters with different temperatures, we experience adaptation by being able to keep a constant body temperature. When we have our hands submerged in both hot and cold water and then submerge it to a mixture of cold and hot water. Our body tends to maintain a constant body temperature, so when it was from the hot water and then submerging it to the mixture, it would surely feel cold at first until we get used to the temperature. Same goes with the cold water, wherein when we submerge it to the mixture it would feel warm until it gets used to the temperature of the mixture.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   On the third experiment, we experience adaptation at the tactile sensory level, wherein we tend to get used to the feel of the coarse sand paper, that when we rub at it again, it feels a little less coarse. This is adaptation in a sense that our body or our perception of the coarse texture of the sand paper is gradually being changed to a state wherein we won’t feel uncomfortable in rubbing against it. As we feel that it is a little less coarse, then we are able to cope with its coarse texture.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   We can associate this with the theory of adaptation by Lamarck, where organisms inherit the traits which are necessary for them to survive. Those who inherit this trait are able to continue to live, while those who don’t tend to perish. Because of this, the organisms who continue to exist are the ones who were able to get traits which would enable them to adapt to the world they live in.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   In an evolutionary perspective, adaptation is really important because those who are able to adapt will be the ones to survive and continue to exist. This will result to organism who posses traits which are important for them to live in their environment. As the time continues to change the surroundings, only those who are able to cope with these changes will be the ones left to live. Those who are not fit enough to adapt to these changes will surely perish. Those who successfully adapts would lead to the creation of a better species. Reference: (2007). Adaptation.  Ã‚   Retrieved February 24, 2008, from

Friday, January 3, 2020

King Lear Love And Duty - 1101 Words

In both works by Chaucer and Shakespeare, there are two themes that seems to appear. The themes that appear are love and duty. These themes I think are seen more clearly that the other themes that appear in either of their works. In The Miller’s Tale, there is something in it that relates to the theme of love. John shows real true love because he tries everything to save Alisoun. In The Clerk’s Tale, it talks about a character named Walter who tries to fulfill his duty but failed. In Shakespeare s play, King Lear, it shows both love and duty. It shows love because Kent stayed with King Lear and he would die than live without him. Cordelia following her father’s orders and does what she is told because she loves her father. King Lear has a†¦show more content†¦In King Lear, King Lear tells his daughters to profess their love to him and all the daughters agree but Cordelia speaks up and say that her sisters, Goneril and Regan, are being disloyal: CORDELIA. Good my lord, You have begot me, bred me, loved me. I return those duties back as are right fit: Obey you, love you, and most honor you. Why have my sisters husbands if they say They all love you? Haply, when I shall wed, That lord whose hand must take my plight shall carry Half my love with him, half my care and duty. Sure, I shall never marry like my sisters, To love my father all. (1.1. 105-115) Cordelia is being very loyal to her father and his requests while her sisters are being disloyal. Even though she was honest and did her duties as a daughter he still disowned her out of the rage he felt. In The Miller’s Tale John was the only person in the poem to show Alisoun that he truly loves her when she was dying: This carpenter answerde, ‘Alla, my wyf! And shal she drenche? allas, myn Alisoun!’ For sorwe of this he fil almost adoun And seyde, ‘Is ther no remedie in this cas?’ (419-422) He really loves her and he will do anything to save her from dying. In King Lear, Kent is very loyal to King Lear because he loved him as a king, a father, a patron, and a master. Even though there were risksShow MoreRelatedWilliam Shakespeare s King Lear1059 Words   |  5 Pages Overturning Roles in King Lear In King Lear, Traditional roles, such as nobility, gender, and social status, are all usurped or attempted to be overturned during at least one occasion in King Lear. To illustrate, noble roles become overturned when King Lear lessened himself as a king to upgrade two of his daughters, Goneril and Regan, to a higher power of authority. In contrast, he ended up in jail with Cordelia instead of regaining his position back as king. Gender Roles are overturned when theRead More The Importance of the Earl of Kent in Shakespeares King Lear1487 Words   |  6 PagesThe Importance of the Earl of Kent in King Lear   Ã‚   The Earl of Kent plays a small but important part in Shakespeares play King Lear. 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Through these three mediums the trueRead More The Universal Truths of King Lear Essay1344 Words   |  6 PagesThe Universal Truths of King Lear   Ã‚  Ã‚   Edgar:   O, matter and impertinency mixed, Reason in madness!   (4.6.192-93)      Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Reason in madness, truth in suffering, and sight in blindness all contain the same basic meaning.   In order to find and recognize our real selves and the truth, we must suffer. These various themes are continually illustrated throughout Shakespeares King Lear. Their effects are not solely felt by Lear and Gloucester.   All sincerely good charactersRead MoreWilliam Shakespeare s King Lear1480 Words   |  6 PagesIntroduction William Shakespeare wrote the play of â€Å"King Lear† in 1986. This is a typical play of human coarseness and vengeance. The play challenges the audience through the contradiction of the goodness and primordial evil of a man. Many characters in this play demonstrate the tendencies of virtuous or vicious throughout the play. There are many themes in the play, but the most prevailing relates to the subject of justice. Shakespeare demonstrates this thematic deception of themes through instancesRead MoreEssay about Lears Character Development in Shakespeares King Lear1210 Words   |  5 PagesLears Character Development in Shakespeares King Lear Though King Lear, of Shakespeares play, King Lear, wrongs both Cordelia and Kent in his harsh treatment against them, the unjust actions of Regan and Goneril against King Lear cause him to be a man more sinned against than sinning (3.2.60-61). In order to relieve himself of the problems and work associated with holding his position so he can unburdened crawl toward death, King Lear, of pre-Christ Britain, divides up his kingdomRead MoreThe Concepts Of Nature, Humanity, Power And Love Lay As A Foundation For Shakespeare s King Lear1613 Words   |  7 PagesThe concepts of nature, humanity, power and love lay as a foundation for Shakespeare’s, King Lear. These notions are examined through the actions and realizations of King Lear, himself. Throughout the discourse of this play we view the portrayal of humans as animals and witness King Lear’s mistreatment after he gives away his power. When doing so he makes clear his view on love and its value, solely based on the flattery of words.Through nature, King Lear becomes grounded and recognizes the animalisticRead MoreWilliam Shakespeare s King Lear1470 Words   |  6 Pagesduring the Elizabethan era, making it relatable to all audiences, especially the modern aud ience, leaving room for multiple perspectives and understanding of the play. Shakespeare’s play ‘King Lear’, depicts the main protagonist’s ‘gradual descent into madness’ as a result of the forces of evil acting in the play for Lear has, to an extent, have sinned though it can’t outweigh that he has been sinned against. This is confirmed through Lear’s injudiciousness to see through his two eldest daughter’s internalRead More The Dysfunctional Family of King Lear Essay1631 Words   |  7 PagesThe Dysfunctional Family of King Lear    In his tragedy King Lear, William Shakespeare presents two families: a family consisting of a father and his three daughters, and a family consisting of a father and his two sons, one of which is a bastard son. While he has the sons basically come out and admit that one of them is good and the other evil, the Bard chooses to have the feelings of the daughters appear more subtlely. At no point in King Lear does Shakespeare come out and blatantly tell hisRead MoreThe Tragic Tragedy Of William Shakespeare s King Lear1014 Words   |  5 Pagescharacters in King Lear and Macbeth are two individuals that while they share the same hamartia of hubris, the resulting catharsis is different due to their ending circumstances. The superior view of ‘self’ in appearances extends to both characters and leads them to becoming a different person. King Lear’s pride in appearance manifests when he suggests a game between his daughters to compete for sections of his already divided kingdom. King Lear asks his daughters to publicly declare their love for him