Tuesday, October 29, 2019
Christianity - Essay Example The roots of the Christian faith are related to Old Testament Judaism. As far as according to the Scriptures Jesus was circumcised and raised as a Jew, he hallowed the Torah and all the required holytide, and visited synagogue on the Sabbath (Saturday). The apostles and other early followers of Jesus were Jews as well. In just three and a half years after the crucifixion of Christ Christianity began to spread among the nations. Christianity as a religion has three main churches which are the most major stakeholders of the world religion. The split of Christian Church, which took place in the period between sixties of IX century and fifties of XI century, led to the creation of two different churches: Orthodox and Catholic. Another newer movement of Christian religion appeared in the middle of XVI century in Europe and was called Protestantism. The three churches have the same faith direction, although certain crucial nuances their doctrines are based on are different. Christianity in general is based on the Old Testament, dating back to Abraham; the tradition of the religion honors one God (monotheism) who is considered to be the creator of the universe and mankind. However, the main brunches of Christianity also accept the idea of monotheism Trinity which means the three incarnations of God who are united by their divine nature; they are God the Father, God the Son, and God the Holy Spirit (Daggers 962). Orthodox Church is the eastern branch of Christianity, which is mostly widespread within Easter Europe and less in Australia and Canada. The basis of the Orthodox doctrine is constituted by the holy Bible and the Holy Tradition which is the materials of the ecumenical councils, the writings of the Church Fathers, and liturgical practice. The roots of the doctrine come from the recognition of the triune God, the creator and ruler of the universe, the underworld, the
Sunday, October 27, 2019
Thesis On The Population Of Canada History Essay Thesis: Immigration into Canada has made the country the most diversified cultural hub but remain uninterfered with by foreign cultural Introduction: The Canadian population is a mixed race Many of immigrants originated from Europe Canada continued to allow foreigners without restrictions until the end of Second World Rallies erupted for Canadianization effort Body: Immigration and Canadian Diversity History of immigration in Canada Immigrants at the onset of 19th century Reasons contributing to immigration Areas occupied by immigrants Issues arising from mixed ethnic communities Brought in cultural practices Faith and believes Individual rights How Canadas government resolved the issues Establishment of multi-unilateral cultural organ rallies Diversity amongst Canadas nationals Nationalism national symbols social and cultural practices Conclusion: Immigration and diversity in Canada is a serialized process tracking back in the 19th century. Various factors contributed to the emergence of the immigration and subsequent settling. Some conflicts arose amidst mixed ethnic communities Government has not left any stone unturned to level this to a point of general acceptance amongst all. Patriotic measures such as nationalism, coherent national symbols; social and cultural practices used to embrace all as Canadians Part II: ESSAY Introduction The Canadian population is a mixed race whom have crossed to its boarders for the last century and made it their permanent resident. Canada initially welcomed these people since it had a great deficit for laborers who were needed to work in the farms in Prairies, forests factories and mines to build the country (Schiffer- Graham 72). Many of these immigrants originated from Europe while the rest comprises of economic migrants and people who ran away from their countries facing different crisis. Canada continued to allow foreigners without restrictions until the end of Second World War when the public raised concerns over job competition and overstretching of other opportunities by the foreigners (95). Rallies erupted with many sectors including schools, churches, media and social services behind the Canadianization effort. As a result, many adopted English or French language and got accustomed in the surrounding social and economic practices. Immigration in Canada took place in phases with regard to various transitions that were happening globally (Young 66). In this regard, this paper shall seek to examine how immigration into Canada has made the country the most diversified cultural hub but remain uninterfered with by foreign cultural. Immigration and Canadian Diversity Towards the end of the 20th century, a big number migrated from the Caribbean, Asia, Africa and South America. During mid 1990s, 58% of the immigrants had Asia as their country of birth, 20% from Europe, a joint 22% from Central and South America, Africa and USA most of them settling in Toronto, Montreal and Vancouver (Canada Year Book 11). By the year 2010, Canadas population was estimated at 33,930,800, with more than 18.4 percent born outside Canada. More than 13 million immigrants have come to Canada in the past century including over 9 million in the last fifty years (Global Perspective).Rural areas, small towns, Quebec and Atlantic Canada hosts the few foreign born population than the rest of Canada while the greatest of the population have dwellings in the fifteen largest towns of Canada Canada has a wide cultural diversity. It accepts multiculturalism and the related social rights in its constitution. In fact Canadas department of heritage has stretched further to consult Canada Policy Research Networks (CPRN) to come up with modalities that enrich its diversity by establishing a policy development process. According to Jenson and Papillon (2001), the government of Canada has promoted multiculturalism since 1971 insisting on cultural diversity in a liberal society (Schiffer- Graham 59). It recognizes its citizens cultural rights allowing individuals freedom to live according to their cultural heritage. Karygiannis, an immigrant was quoted in Global Perspective Magazine As immigrants, whether our ancestors came with the early explorers, landed at Pier 21 in Halifax in 1928-1971 or arrived today at terminal 1 at Lester B Pearson International Airport, we brought our traditions, cultures, faith, good and bad habit (Global Perspective). This policy is accommodative to a nti-racist activities and access to public institutions for individual members of minority groups. There is however the opinion that Canadas embrace on multiculturalism undermines its national values. The use of national minorities for instance has involved French-Canadians and Quebecers, leading to a centurys old political debate on the place of French and English-speaking Canadians in the country, their rights, responsibilities and attachment to the country (Jane and Papillon 41). This controversy has recently affected Aboriginal peoples seeking recognition, certain privileges and rights not accorded to other Canadian citizens. These demands were granted on limited sovereignty over a certain territory creating room for Aboriginals social and cultural developments. This brought about constitutional conflicts: Members from Nisga as nation for example were the only to benefit from the rights (Nisgaa citizenship) with different voting rights, what many termed as racist arrangement, departing from neutral equality. The initiative was however as an effort to address issues of cultural exclusion of Aboriginal people living in Canada based on a mind that differentiation is crucial in achieving equality (Jane and Papillon 74). The government has so far developed strategies responding to the new ethnic and social reality focusing on institutional change, race relations and citizen integration and participation which costs Canadians an average of a dollar a day (Multiculturalism in Canada). Recent election studies are indicating that Canadas immigrants have greatly acquainted themselves in the regional political behaviors in Quebec, Ontario, Alberta and British Colombia. Those that originated non-tradition source countries have more likelihood to be of the opinions that are more federal oriented than the local populations in their provinces (Metropolis policy priorities). This is evident in Quebec where groups of immigrants from both traditional and non-traditional source countries internalize political grievances and norms less powerfully than their counterparts in other provinces (Multiculturalism in Canada). Canadians have embraced nationalism and protection of Canadian sovereignty placing them in the civic nationalist category. They have indeed been referred as anti-pro Americans who associate their independence linked to their own (Schiffer- Graham 106). Over the transitions that have taken years to realize a harmonized community, it has become an individuals obligation to promote Canadians culture and limit the affluence of foreign countries. Many of Canadian national symbols have been changed to conform to its national idealism retracting from those of the UK. The country has refined its social outlook in diverse fields of literature, arts, music and the media to promote its culturarism and nationalism of its people. Conclusion In conclusion, Canada remains one of the most diversified countries in the world that embrace positive cultural diversification, inclusion and democracy. Immigration and diversity in Canada is a serialized process tracking back in the 19th century. Various factors contributed to the emergence of the immigration and subsequent settling. Some conflicts arose amidst mixed ethnic communities of different origin but the government has not left any stone unturned to level this to a point of general acceptance amongst all. Patriotic measures of nationalism, coherent national symbols; social and cultural practices have been embraced to raise the Canadian flag and its people higher and unique.
Friday, October 25, 2019
Stanley StewartÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"From the Empire of Genghis KhanÃ¢â¬ is a highly inspiring travel writing filled with hilarious plots vividly portrayed in chronological, fully-detailed, easily followed events. The extract is about a Ã¢â¬Å"Mongolian WeddingÃ¢â¬ which Stewart attended. The extract is very precise as Stewart uses time keywords in chronological order such as Ã¢â¬Å"Throughout the eveningÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"In the morningÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"By mid afternoonÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"At four oÃ¢â¬â¢clockÃ¢â¬ at the beginning of each paragraph making it easy for readers to follow up and relate to the story effectively. He first shows the reader a hint about the Mongolian people he met with; they are Ã¢â¬Å"unpredictableÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"boisterousÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"could be as bad as the next fellow they warn him aboutÃ¢â¬ . He then mentions cultural traditions in Mongolian weddings such as the groom searching for his bride under a bed of one of the neighboring gers, the preparation of the brideÃ¢â¬â¢s family for the bridal breakfast and the groomÃ¢â¬â¢s family for the evening feast; that indicates that each family is both trying to show their excessive generosity, care and luxury to the other family. In addition to that, he shows that it was a custom for the sisters of the bride to serve both families with liquor and to make sure that everyone from the bride to the furthest guest are at their absolute comfort and satisfaction. Every Mongolian guest was supposed to give out a song related to weddings even the shyest of them all would have no problem in reciting as the others will accompany him/her later on in the following verses. Another tradition was that each guest had to drink as least three bowls of airag. Stewart successfully maintained the readerÃ¢â¬â¢s interest to the matter by using an immense method for ridiculing strange traditions or reactions or by the aid of thriving language devices no to mention in compare to the Western culture. As for his comedic tone and great sense of humour, Stewart described every incident in full-detailed ironic manner. First he gave a light hearted comment how the old Russian truck carrying hordes of wedding guests was the equivalent of the wedding Rolls Ricer back in his hometown. Then he ridiculed the idea behind letting the groom pretend he is searching for his bride when her hiding place is previously distinguished! He clearly expressed the extent of the uninviting and unappetising state the breakfast meal was; Ã¢â¬Å"slabs of white cheeseÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"boiled sweets were arrayed in dizzy layersÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"a mountainous plate of sheep partsÃ¢â¬ .
Thursday, October 24, 2019
Ã¢â¬Å"Western modernity was shaped by cross-currents between Europe and North America in the 19th century and in the beginning of the 20th century. Ã¢â¬ Neoclassicism was a movement which focused on the rediscovery of Ancient Greek and Roman values and style (and called Greek revival in the United States). It was a defining trait of the Enlightenment age and of its reasoning-based political and artistic thinking and saw its apogee during the Napoleonic era.Starting in the 19th century, this movement was opposed by the Romantics, who ended the strict rules of neoclassicism and made the expression of their emotions and feelings the basis for their art, may it be poetry, literature, painting or music. The English romantic poet William Wordsworth called romantic poetry Ã¢â¬Å"the spontaneous overflow of powerful feelings recollected in tranquilityÃ¢â¬ . Compared to the neoclassicists, romantics such as Edgar Allan Poe or Victor Hugo were Ã¢â¬Å"modernÃ¢â¬ .They anticipated mentality changes in the Western world. Parts of western modernity were shaped by interactions and cross currents between Europe and the United States during the 19th and 20th century. These centuries were characterised by a break from the established rules and the artistic past and were times of new technologies as well as increasing interaction between the two sides of the Northern Atlantic. Such Euro-American relations, may they be artistic, cultural and even political have never died out.To understand our Western modernity, this paper shall examine two different aspects of these artistic cross-currents. Firstly, the romantic current played an important role in all the arts, ranging from poetry to architecture. Finally, the appearance of the documentary art of photography has in many aspects shaped modernity and even later led to the invention of motion picture and cinema. Firstly, the Romantic Movement that swarmed across Europe and North America starting in the 19th century helped to shape western modernity.The Romantics broke away from the neoclassicism and the Enlightenment era and, as Samuel Taylor Coleridge puts it, Romanticism is the expression of Ã¢â¬Å"intellectual intuitionÃ¢â¬ , and combines reason and emotion to find Truth and Beauty. The movement focused on individualism and even egocentrism, the importance of the Ã¢â¬Å"selfÃ¢â¬ ; the concept of Ã¢â¬Å"author-as-heroÃ¢â¬ was particularly popular. Romantics also elevated human and divine imagination and inspiration, revered nature and ts mysteries and authors often opposed an ideal view of reality to the sense of loss and melancholy, as Baudelaire does in the section Ã¢â¬Å"Spleen and IdealÃ¢â¬ of Ã¢â¬Å"Les Fleurs du MalÃ¢â¬ , his poetry volume. In short, they believed in beauty for beauty's sake and art for art's sake. This was modernity. Edgar Allan Poe and Charles Baudelaire are the epitome of the relations and cross-currents between North America and Europe shaped modernity, as Charles Baudelaire often translated Poe' work from English and made it accessible to French readers.Edgar Allan Poe was a famous American romanticism writer who lived in the first half of the 19th century. He surely deserved William Butler YeatsÃ¢â¬â¢s praise for being Ã¢â¬Å"always and for all lands a great lyric poetÃ¢â¬ as he was one of the earliest short story writers and often considered as the inventor of modern crime fiction and the modern character of the detective, a self-referential character. Poe clearly revolutionized and therefore modernized literature and western modernity greatly inherits from his work. He had a well-know taste for writing ghoulish and mysterious stories.In Ã¢â¬Å"The Man of the CrowdÃ¢â¬ , a short story he wrote in 1840 for example, an unknown narrator follows a mysterious old man throughout the crowds and bazaars of London. This story emphasizes how the Ã¢â¬Å"wandererÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"strollerÃ¢â¬ can walk through the crowded city whi le still maintaining an outside view: he does not buy anything and does not even notice the narrator. The story opposes the individual to the rest of the people, seen as one group: Ã¢â¬Å"the crowdÃ¢â¬ . Charles Baudelaire translated this story to French in Ã¢â¬Å"L'homme des foulesÃ¢â¬ . For Baudelaire, the flaneur becomes important to understand urban modernity as he Ã¢â¬Å"walks the city to experience itÃ¢â¬ .This image of an outsider is also mixed with the image of the dandy, and Baudelaire is known to be somewhere between the two, as his peculiar habits testified. Baudelaire defines modernity as the Ã¢â¬Å"ephemeral, the fugitive, the contingent, the half of art whose other half is the eternal and the immutableÃ¢â¬ in Ã¢â¬Å"The Painter of Modern LifeÃ¢â¬ , which he writes about Constantin Guys without revealing his name. For Baudelaire, Guys is the painter of modern life because he is not only a flaneur, he is also able Ã¢â¬Å"to distil the eternal from the transito ryÃ¢â¬ .Guys, who wanted to remained unnamed in Baudelaire's review, was a an army man with no artistic education who started with drawings specialized in war but later also represented modern urban life in London and Paris such as popular celebrations or simply street scenes. Constantin Guys never signed or exposed his paintings and was only recognized in his time by Baudelaire and a circle of friends of which the prominent photograph Nadar. He painted and drew from memory and Baudelaire writes in Ã¢â¬Å"The Painter of Modern LifeÃ¢â¬ that Ã¢â¬Å"Monsieur G. ever ceases to drink the fantastic reality of life; his eyes and his memory are full of it. Ã¢â¬Å" Ã¢â¬Å"Ou il faudrait ne voir que le Beau, notre public ne cherche que le VraiÃ¢â¬ , writes Baudelaire in Ã «Le public moderne et la photographieÃ ». Modernity for Poe, Baudelaire and the Romantics in general is finding and creating beauty for the sake of beauty. Baudelaire did not appreciate the first photographs that were made of him such as the one by Etienne Carjat shown below. In his critique of the Salon de 1859, he blames the new industry of photography for the decline of French spirit.In Ã¢â¬Å"Le public modern et la photographieÃ¢â¬ , Baudelaire writes that the ignorant modern crowds believe that what is identical to nature is art and that they wrongly believe that therefore photography is Ã¢â¬Å"lÃ¢â¬â¢art absoluÃ¢â¬ . Ã¢â¬Å"Les insenses! Ã¢â¬ . Even though photography was the refuge of bad painters and was first considered industry and not art at first, it is nowadays considered by many both an art and a way of documenting life and events as in all newspapers and magazines, especially the ones that focus on nature, journalism or even fashion photography. [pic][pic] Baudelaire by Carjat.Carosse, drawing by Guys One of the first kinds of photography, the daguerreotype process was named after its French inventor Frenchman, Louis Daguerre. In 1839, it was eulogized in the Fren ch academies of Sciences and of Fine Arts by Francois Arago because he found it useful for astronomy. Using such processes, the French photographer Nadar, friend of Guys and Baudelaire who lived and had his studio on the rue Saint-Lazare in Paris, had the opportunity to photograph many figures of the French arts and journalism scene such as Gustave Dore or Alexandre Dumas.Until the 1870s defined the modern photographic portrait: thanks to an astute use of lights, his portraits were more life-like than the ones by other photographers. He used no decor, a Ã¢â¬Å"neutral backgroundÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"clothes that served simply to bring out the sitter's outlineÃ¢â¬ . The telegraph inventor Samuel Morse brought the daguerreotype to the United States after meeting Daguerre in Paris in 1839. Such cross-Atlantic contact was already common in the 19th century and even Poe spent time on both sides of the ocean.Because photographic techniques kept on improving and modernizing, picture look ed more and more lifelike and representative of reality. Photography was most notably used during the American Secession War from 1861 to 1865. Photography was not only used by upper-class citizens in daily bourgeois life but also as documentary photography. The great characters as well as horrible events of the civil war were for instance immortalized, partly for the sake of information and truth. As shown below, GardnerÃ¢â¬â¢s pictures of the war have integrated the American historical heritage.It was the avant-garde of modern mass media: in 1933, the first photograph was transferred on a newspaper, revolutionizing forever modern newspapers. [pic][pic] Alexander Gardner's photographs in Antietam, USA, September 1862 But modern photography was also well elevated to the statute of fine art in the life time of the internationally recognized photographer and gallery director Alfred Stieglitz (1864-1946): he is considered Ã¢â¬Å"a crusader for modernismÃ¢â¬ . Stieglitz worked pa instakingly and succeeded in legitimizing the fine art of photography.He became of Expressionist leaning and started to replace naturalism in his art with exaggeration and the expression of Ã¢â¬Å"intense, subjective emotionÃ¢â¬  as his piece shown below, Equivalent suggests. , once again proving his pioneering role in the perception of modernity. [pic][pic] The Terminal by Alfred Stieglitz (1892)Equivalent by Stieglitz (1926) Western modernity was shaped by the cross currents across the Atlantic in the 19th and 20th centuries, especially the Romantic Movement of which Poe and somehow his follower Baudelaire were part of.Poe and Baudelaire pioneered western modernity as they have for the self-reflecting character of the flaneur and by for example noticing Constantin Guys and his modern urban dweller drawings. Thanks to the invention and rise of photography during the end of the 19th century painting was liberated from the need to represent accurately and modern painting was tri ggered by a wave of creativity in the beginning of the 20th century. Photography also contributed to shaping western modernity, especially by documenting the Civil War that ravaged North America and by the creation of portraits of intellectuals in France.The invention of photography also eventually led to cinema, which became increasingly popular and accessible throughout the 20th century to become the seventh art and for some companies a very profitable industry. Photography is also one of the ways journalists make us see what is too far from us, such as modern day events like the Arab revolutions. In short, photography, starting with, among others, Daguerre, Nadar, Gardner and later Stieglitz became a full part of western modernity both in industry and fine art.
Wednesday, October 23, 2019
Cause and Effect Essay Marijuana can be found on every college campus in Canada and is the drug of choice coming in right behind alcohol. The Department of Justice Canada conducted a survey and found that, Ã¢â¬Å"almost one-third (29%) of college students had reported using marijuana during the previous 12 months of 1998. (http://www. justice. gc. ca/eng/pi/rs/rep-rap/2002/qa02_2-qr02_2/p2. html). According to a similar study, the majority of students on college campuses that use marijuana will also participate in other high risk activities.This destructive behavior includes things such as cigarette smoking, binge drinking and sex while intoxicated. Marijuana is so easy to obtain and can be very tempting to experiment with, especially if you have already had a few drinks and your thinking is impaired. Marijuana causes many internal and external problem for a college student, Marijuana can lead to academic problems, addiction, and physical/mental issues, marijuana can also lead to ser ious problems with the law. All these issues can potentially damage the outcome of a studentÃ¢â¬â¢s future.Marijuana prices have a major effect on the amount of use by college students at any given point in time. Although it may be more socially available on college campuses, the price still determines the usage. The fact that marijuana is illegal in Canada helps to keep the price at a seemingly higher level. This artificial price illusion regulates the buying, selling and usage among college students. Compared to alcohol, marijuana is much more accessible, especially on college campuses. Getting alcohol requires an ID or someone with an ID.Getting marijuana only requires someone that supplies the drug. So even though it is illegal, marijuana is seemingly more common. Since possession of marijuana is illegal, it is not surprising that the consequences can be so debilitating. While attending college with federal financial aid, you run the risk of jeopardizing your federal aid by be ing charged with a misdemeanor. Possession of marijuana is considered a misdemeanor and if you are charged, the federal government has the right to take away any government aid that you were granted.So not only do you have a record for possession, but more than likely you are going through the judicial system of the college or university and may be suspended or expelled. Marijuana use can also lead to academic problems. Students that participate in these behaviors have a tendency to spend more time socializing than concentrating on what they should be, their academics. These students spend more time partying than studying which greatly affects their academic performance. Two of the physical effects of marijuana that directly affect academics are difficulty in problem solving and poor memory.Students may become less and less motivated to be involved in campus activities, and also may become decreasingly concerned with their long-term goals and career plans. Users may have a hard time limiting their use and may build a tolerance to the drug. This tolerance means that the user now requires a larger amount of the drug to get the same effect, and may develop problems with their jobs and personal relationships because the drug becomes such a major part of his or her life. Many students see marijuana as a Ã¢â¬Å"recreationalÃ¢â¬ drug.With increased Ã¢â¬Å"recreationalÃ¢â¬ use, the drug can become addictive. It is not so much an addiction, but a psychological dependence for smoking, and that feeling of intoxication. However, besides being illegal, marijuana may contain unknown contaminants that can severely harm your brain and lungs. With all of the risks of the drug, it is amazing that people still use it Ã¢â¬Å"recreationallyÃ¢â¬ . It is common for students to first experiment with their peers, whether it be a friend, sibling or just an acquaintance. The peer pressure is the most likely cause of first time users.Physical effects of marijuana are different ac cording to the way in which it is taken, where it is used, the expectations and or ideals of the user, and whether or not it is used in conjunction with other drugs. Users often have chronic bronchitis and increased chances of getting lung cancer. Someone who smokes marijuana regularly may have many of the same respiratory problems that tobacco smokers have. Marijuana also affects the brain, researchers say that THC changes the way in which sensory information gets into and is acted on by the hippocampus.The immediate effects of marijuana other than a feeling of intoxication are: bloodshot eyes, anxiety, confusion and paranoia, loss of coordination, and increased appetite. Mental effects show that the drug can impair or reduce short-term memory, alter sense of time, and reduce ability to do things which require concentration and coordination. MarijuanaÃ¢â¬â¢s effect on a student can tally up to some very serious consequences that a student can suffer, the cause and effect of marij uana lead to problems of addiction, health problems, trouble with the law and poor academic performances.